Most of the studies in the literature on post-traumatic epilepsy are clinical and epidemiological. Among those who study its pathophysiology or neurobiology, most do so in animal models. Almost all the studies that identify biomarkers of post-traumatic epilepsy and other refractory epilepsies do so in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. Therefore, very little is known about the cellular mechanisms of post-traumatic epilepsy and drug-resistant epilepsy in human brain tissue. In this conference it will be shown the previous evidence of these biomarkers, as well as recent evidence that has been obtained in the process of identifying the cell types that express some markers of refractory epilepsy in cortical tissue of post-surgical epilepsy. It will be demonstrated biomarkers of cytoarchitecture, neurodevelopment and neuroinflammation in cortical tissue samples from patients with refractory epilepsy, including post-traumatic epilepsy, particularly with alterations in specific subtypes of GABAergic interneurons, increase in cell proliferation and neuronal death markers, and identification of cell populations that most express neuroinflammation markers. Some of those markers are being used for the first time in brain tissue from humans with refractory epilepsy, so these histological findings would reinforce those found by others in blood, CSF, or animal models.