This presentation will give an overview of the contribution of neuroinflammation to epilepsy showing evidence from epileptogenic human brain regions and animal models of acquired epilepsy. The talk will summarize cellular and molecular inflammatory targets identified for developing new antiepileptogenic therapies. The talk will focus on the IL-1 receptor-Toll-like receptor 4 axis, the arachidonic acid-prostaglandin cascade, oxidative stress and transforming growth factor-β signalling associated with blood-brain barrier dysfunction, all of which are pathways that are activated in drug-resistant human epilepsy. These pathways can be modulated in animal models at various disease stages to mediate therapeutic effects on seizures, neuronal cell loss and neurological comorbidities. Moreover, the diagnostic, prognostic and predictive value of inflammatory molecules in blood or CSF and neuroimaging of brain inflammation will be shown together with evidence of clinical translation of preclinical findings.